Pronunciation [ˈtyɾct͡ʃɛ]
Native to Turkey, Germany, Bulgaria, Macedonia, Northern Cyprus, Greece, Azerbaijan, Kosovo, Romania, Iraq
Native speakers 63 million  (2007)
Language family
  • Oghuz
    • Western Oghuz
      • Turkish
Early forms:
Old Anatolian Turkish
  • Ottoman Turkish
    • Turkish
Standard forms
Ottoman Turkish (defunct)
Karamanli Turkish
Cypriot Turkish
Writing system Latin
Official status
Official language in Turkey
Northern Cyprus (recognized only by Turkey)
Kosovo(its status was lifted for a while in 1999)
Recognised minority language in FYR Macedonia (recognized)
Romania (recognized)
Language codes
ISO 639-1 tr
ISO 639-2 tur
ISO 639-3 tur

Turkish is the most widely-spoken of the Turkic languages, with over 63 million native speakers. Speakers are located predominantly in Turkey, with smaller groups in Germany, Bulgaria, Macedonia, Northern Cyprus, Greece, and other parts of Eastern Europe, Caucasus and Central Asia.

The roots of the language can be traced to the Altay region, with the first known written records dating back nearly 1,300 years. To the west, the influence of Ottoman Turkish—the variety of the Turkish language that was used as the administrative and literary language of the Ottoman Empire—spread as the Ottoman Empire expanded. In 1928, as one of Atatürk's Reforms in the early years of the Republic of Turkey, the Ottoman script was replaced with a Latin alphabet.

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